What is a photovoltaic micro-installation?
A photovoltaic micro-installation is a small power plant that generates electricity using sunlight. Photovoltaic panels absorb solar energy, which they convert into direct current, then converted by an inverter into alternating current supplying all household appliances and sent to the power grid. The micro-installation is most often located on the roof of the building, although there are also objects founded on the ground. The photovoltaic micro-installation is designed to cover the owner’s electricity demand, which allows to significantly reduce electricity costs.
Following applicable law, a micro-installation is a renewable energy source installation with a total installed electrical capacity of no more than 50kW, connected to a power grid with a rated voltage lower than 110kV or with a combined heat output of no more than 150kW, in which the total installed electrical capacity is is not more than 50kW.
Prosumer and photovoltaic micro-installation
Anyone who thinks about buying and installing a photovoltaic micro-installation can do it by becoming a prosumer, i.e. a producer and consumer of electricity in one.
A prosumer is a final recipient who buys electricity based on a comprehensive contract, and at the same time produces electricity only from renewable energy sources in a micro-installation, to use it for his own needs, not related to the business activity regulated by the Act of 2 July 2004 on freedom of economic activity.
Prosumer may be:
- natural people,
- natural persons running a business, provided that they produce energy for purposes unrelated to their business,
- persons running agricultural, fishing, horticultural farms, breeders, provided that this activity is not covered by the Act of 2 July 2004 on freedom of economic activity,
- local government units,
- housing cooperatives and communities,
- churches, religious associations.
Energy production and billing system
A photovoltaic micro-installation produces electricity during the day all year round, with significantly greater production taking place in the spring and summer season. The energy generated in the micro-installation is used for the current needs of the owner, and the surplus generated at the time of production is transferred to the power grid and stored there for 365 days. This energy can be used in the period of reduced production or the case of its lack – the autumn-winter season, at night.
The settlement with the power company is made on an annual basis, which means that the surplus energy transferred can be collected within 365 days from the end of the settlement period. Settlement is cashless, based on the so-called discount system eliminating the sale of electricity.
The discount value depends on the capacity of the micro-installations:
- Installations up to 10 kW – the discount is 0.8 kWh for each 1 kWh of energy fed into the grid,
- Installations above 10 kW – the discount is 0,7 kWh for each1 kWh of energy fed into the grid.
Power of photovoltaic micro-installations
When planning the construction of micro-installations in a household, one should take into account the year-round historical electricity consumption of the facility. A well-designed photovoltaic micro-installation should produce energy in an annual amount corresponding to the current annual consumption, increased by losses related to the storage of surplus energy in the operator’s network.
Under Polish atmospheric conditions, each 1 kWp of the installation can produce an average of 1000 kWh of energy per year.
When estimating the size of a home micro-installation, the following should be taken into account:
- the current annual electricity consumption,
- current demand for electricity,
- plans to increase the demand for electricity, e.g. domestic water heating, conversion to electric heating, purchase of an electric car,
- the direction of installation of the panels and the angle of their inclination (the direction of the roof to the directions of the world and its inclination angle).
The most efficient setting is south at an angle of approximately 35°
- technical constraints of assembly such as the surface and shape of the roof, shading.
The best solution ensuring the highest energy yields is to position the micro-installations towards the south. South-east, south-west or east-west orientation also allows the installation of pv modules, but it should be taken into account that electricity yields will be slightly lower. We strongly advise you not to install modules facing north.
Support for owners of micro-installations
- no permit for the construction of a photovoltaic micro-installation,
- no license required for electricity production,
- no network connection fee,
- free installation of a bidirectional meter,
- a discount system that promotes the use of energy for personal use,
- non-returnable subsidy My Electricity in the amount of up to PLN 5 000,
- exemption of the My Electricity subsidy from PIT,
- the possibility of deducting the costs of building micro-installations from the tax base,
- unified 8% VAT rate for photovoltaic installations.
“My Electricity” program
The “My Electricity” program is financed by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management, and it aims to improve energy security and protect the natural environment by promoting investments in renewable energy sources. The budget of the program is 1 billion PLN, which means the possibility of building 200,000 new photovoltaic installations.
The “My Electricity” program is addressed to natural persons generating electricity for their own needs, who have concluded a comprehensive agreement with an energy company, regulating issues related to the introduction of energy generated in micro-installations to the grid.
The program enables co-financing of the purchase and installation of a photovoltaic micro-installation with a capacity of 2-10 kW intended for housing purposes. You cannot finance the expansion of an existing installation.
The form and amount of the grant
Co-financing in the form of a non-returnable subsidy makes it possible to cover up to 50% of eligible costs of an investment in one photovoltaic micro-installation, but no more than PLN 5 000 per one project.
After performing the micro-installation, installing a bidirectional meter by the energy company and connecting it to the power grid.
Tax relief for a photovoltaic installation
The term modernization relief allows for the deduction of purchase and installation costs of a photovoltaic micro-installation from the tax base. Only owners and co-owners of already built single-family houses can use it. The amount to be deducted cannot exceed 53,000. PLN and applies to all modernization projects carried out in individual buildings, of which the taxpayer is the owner or co-owner. If the amount of the deduction is higher than the annual income, the surplus may be deducted in the following years, but not longer than 6 years, counting from the end of the tax year in which the first expenditure was incurred.
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